Class Resource for PX2011 & PX3013 (2008/09)
The Wikipedia free encyclopaedia site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurora_Borealis† gives useful introduction of† aurora† What are they,† when we can see them† and as well as types of aurora.
The† Geophysical institute at university of Alaska† site† http://odin.gi.alaska.edu/FAQ/#color† gives† very useful description of what can make the colour of aurora, What cause aurora, any effect on environment,† prediction about where and when aurora can occur.
The Wikipedia page for the
astrological phenomenon the
This site gives some
background information about
Aurora Watch (www.dcs.lancs.ac.uk/iono/aurorawatch/)
allows you to monitor geomagnetic activity in real time, and will let you know
when aurora may be visibe from the
Aurora Page (www.geo.mtu.edu/weather/aurora/) provides a guide to the Northern lights, a good tutorial description, predictions of forthcoming activity.
The European Space agency website- http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Cassini-Huygens/index.html , has a good amount of information in the form of separate articles regarding the Cassini-Huygens mission. It also has a selection of diagrams and videos showing the orbit of the spacecraft.
http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/cassini/overview1.php , this website gives an overview and general facts about the mission; it also includes pictures of the mission itself as well as pictures taken form the Cassin-Huygens spacecraft flyby. The section at the end of the article also has links to more websites for further reading on the subject.
The NASA website (http://mig.rssi.ru/mirrors/stern/Education/wcosray.html) gives a good introduction to cosmic rays, ie. what they are made up of, how they are formed and speculation into where they come from.
The Physical Review Focus site (http://focus.aps.org/story/v8/st8) explains how cosmic rays have an effect on the ozone layer by breaking down CFC's and realsing chlorine.
The encyclopaedia site define the cosmic rays, explain how do we study them, and how does our detectors work .Itís also tell us how do they come from http://www.ast.leeds.ac.uk/haverah/aims.shtml
The encyclopaedia site depicts the cosmic rays in the space and about the cosmic rays activities, also it includes Galactic Cosmic Rays Anomalous Cosmic Rays Solar, Energetic Particles http://helios.gsfc.nasa.gov/cosmic.html
The encyclopaedic site of Nasa (http://helios.gsfc.nasa.gov/cosmic.html) gives detailed information of cosmic rays, as well as good images for a better understanding.
The free Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_ray ), gives a brilliant summary of how cosmic rays† produced as well its effect and application.
This site provides information on the different types of cosmic rays and provides links to other news on cosmic rays from numerous websites. It also has many images of cosmic rays to aid understanding.
R. A. Mewaldt
California Institute of Technology
This site is an in-depth introduction to the field of cosmic rays, providing research on the history and current research on them. It also briefly describes their composition and where they are found. It is more of a information based website as opposed to a diagrammatic site.
The NASA site http://helios.gsfc.nasa.gov/cosmic.html has a brief overview of cosmic rays, how they are made up and how they are created. This site also gives you an explanation of the different types of cosmic rays, i.e. Galactic, Anomalous and Solar Energetic Particles.
International space station
Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Space_Station) gives a wide range of general information about the ISS. It describes history and the assemblage of ISS and gives an insight to the research programs and what life on board is like. Additionally it gives various links of Official ISS pages of participating space agencies.
One of the on Wikipedia provided links takes you to the ESA webpage (http://www.esa.int/esaHS/iss.html). A complete plan of all assemblages can be found as well as more in detail information on the already above mentioned topics and policies. A nice feature on this page shows where the ISS is just now.
The NASA website, is the official site for information about the International Space Station, - http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html it has very good information on the current status of the International Space station and gives an insight about the crew and what research they do aboard this research laboratory. It also includes a calendar of events which shows what events have taken place since in the 10 years it has been operating.
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Space_Station is useful for more details information about which countries are involved in the running of the space station and mroe indepth information about it's assembly, power supplies and what life is like onboard the station. It also includes numerous links to more specified areas of interest. Each country involved in the running and maintenance of the Space station has it's own official website.
NASA's website specifically about the Internation Space Station (http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html) has some great detail regarding the space station. It informs the reader of latest updates about the space station and includes some brilliant flash anmations on what the space station is and how it works. I particulary like the colourful professional layout and how it appeals to the younger generation. This source is entirely dependable as NASA helped build the space station and have astronauts up there.
Space.com's international space station reference guide ( http://www.space.com/internationalspacestation/) contains useful information about the space station and gives detailed statistics about the space station. While NASA's pages were colourful and "glitzy" space.com's website conveys more detailed information in a more mature fashion.
The free encyclopaedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionosphere provides a good introduction to the Ionosphere. It is well referenced and provides many links to related topics.
assets.cambridge.org/97805213/30831/excerpt/9780521330831_excerpt.pdf this page is the introduction to a book, it provides a detailed introduction with diagrams
Good introduction which
explains about the
Click ďBest of SOHOĒ some amazing pictures.
Fantastic website of for up to date news and improvements if the technology,† awesome images and videos which help explain some horrid questions.
This is the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) website dedicated to the
This is the European Space
Agency (ESA) website page dedicated to the
Van Allen belt
Gives good detailed description of what the van Allen belts are and what problems they can cause. There is data on distances from the earth and sizes of the belts. Also good diagrams helping to back up the written explanation and data on distances and scale. It has an interesting discussion about removing the belts and weather that would b a good idea or not.
this site also describes the Van Allen belts but in less detail. It has additional information on satellite which have detected the belts and information on when and what satellite descoverd each belt. Also another good diagram of the belts in relation to the magnetic field of the earth
Van Allen Belt-Wikipedia-(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Van_Allen_radiation_belt) Has to be one of the most useful search engines due to itís ease of use and highlighted references for individual points. It has regular updated content and many external links.
Crystalinks (http://www.crystalinks.com/vanallenbelt.html) is somewhat simple and lacking advanced scientific information, this means that it is useful if a brief overview is needed but not for detailed study.
C.T.R Wilson and his cloud chamber
Cloud chambers "developed from the work of Charles
Wilson at the Cavendish Laboratory in the 1890's. He was interested in creating
artificial mist, in order to investigate its effect on light, and did so by
building a desktop-sized apparatus in which a glass chamber full of moist air
was connected to a piston which could be suddenly moved outward, lowering the
pressure and causing mist (or cloud) to form in the chamber. The mist droplets
grow on tiny particles of dust in the air (cloud condensation nuclei). But, to
The device came to be called the
Some of the most important achievements using the Wilson
chamber were: the demonstration of the existence of Compton recoil electrons,
thus establishing beyond any doubt the reality of the Compton effect (Compton
shared the Nobel Prize with Wilson in 1927); the discovery of the positron by
Anderson (who was awarded the Nobel Prize for 1936 for this feat); the visual
demonstration of the processes of "pair creation" and
"annihilation" of electrons and positrons by Blackett
and Occhialini; and that of the transmutation of
atomic nuclei carried out by Cockcroft and Walton. Thus,